It was one of the *biggest* scandals in *British Education* . In the 1960s, while *young black adults* were getting to grips with the struggle for black power and a long fightback against police abuse was starting, the majority of *West Indian migrants* were keeping their heads down. However, in a *white-dominated* country, where the politics were becoming increasingly *racialised* , there was a question of how *society* , and its teachers, saw these young *black children*.

Before having a chance to develop *intellectually* , they were labelled as stupid, difficult and disruptive and categorised *Educationally Subnormal* (ESN)

At the same time, celebrity psychologists *Hans Eysenck* and *Arthur Jensen* were propounding theories that black people were genetically less *intelligent* than white people. These theories infiltrated teacher training and found their way into schools. IQ tests were then based on these theories with the odds horrendously stacked against children from the Caribbean.

Note: *Educationally Subnormal* (ESN) was abolished as a category by the *1981* Education Act.